Literature Analyses


Written by Edward Elgar
Arranged by Albert O. Davis

Publisher: Ludwig Music Publishing Co.
Year Published: 1988
Difficulty Level: Publisher rating = Not Rated
1995-98 Texas PML rating = Grade 2
Reviewed by: Mark Koehl - Spring 1999
Style/Form: Adagio (quarter = 76) 


Key Signatures:

(concert pitch)

No key changes:

three flats (m.1 - end)

Time Signatures: 3/4 (m.1 - end) 
Ranges: Woodwinds:
    Flute up to f2, Clarinet 1 up to b flat2, Alto Sax up to c2 (one time); All others have average ranges
    Cornet 1 up to g1, Horn in F 1 up to e flat1, Trombone 1up to f, Baritone BC up to e flat, Tuba up to C
Rhythms: Winds:
    Mostly Level 1 and 2 rhythms throughout.  Some Level 3 rhythms. 
    Mostly Level 1 rhythms.  Timpani has one Level 3 rhythm.
Instrumentation: Flute, Oboe, Basson, Clarinet 1, Clarinet 2, Clarinet 3, Alto Clarinet, Bass Clarinet, Alto Sax 1, Alto Sax 2, Tenor Sax, Bari Sax, Cornet 1, Cornet 2, Cornet 3, Horn in F 1, Horn in F 2, Horn in F 3, Trombone 1, Trombone 2, Trombone 3, Baritone BC, Baritone TC, Tuba, String Bass, Percussion, Timpani
Percussion: Chimes, Triangle, Cymbal, Bass Drum, Timpani
Conductor Score: Semi-Score; 11 lines; Flute/Oboe, Low Woodwinds, Baritone/Tuba are each combined on one line
Length/Timing: 3 minutes; 72 measures
  • Rhythms are fairly simple throughout
  • No time changes
  • No Key Changes
  • Large amount of upbeat entrances throughout piece.
  • Slow sustained nature of the piece calls for mature expressive playing
  • Most of piece has moderate ranges 
  • Lots of dynamic contrast
  • Timpani part is essential to the effect of the piece

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