Literature Analyses


Written by Clifton Williams

Publisher: Ludwig Music
Year Published: 1990
Difficulty Level: Publisher rating = 2.5

1995-98 Texas PML rating = Grade 2

Reviewed by: Jill Reutlinger - Spring 1999
Style/Form: Theme and Variations
Theme (m.1 - 26) (quarter=108)
Variation 1 (m.27 - 71) (quarter=96)
Variation 2 (m.72 - 100) (quarter=96)
Variation 3 (m.101-end) (quarter=132)
Key Signatures:

(concert pitch)

No sharps of flats (m.1 - end)
Time Signatures: 4/4 (m.1 - 26)
3/4 (m.27 - 71)
4/4 (m.72 - 100)
2/4 (m.101 - end)
Ranges: Woodwinds:
    Flute 1 up to g2 and down to g, Flute 2 up to f2, Flute 3 up to f2 and down to a-flat, E-flat Clarinet up to d2 and down to c1, Oboe 1 up to c2, Oboe 2 up to b-flat1, Clarinet 1 up to d2 and down to g, Clarinet 2 up to b-flat 1 and down to E, Alto Sax 1 up to a1, Alto Sax 2 up to a1, Tenor Sax up to c2, Bari Sax up to g1, Bassoon up to a and down to EE-flat
    Cornet 1 up to a1, Cornet 2 up to f-sharp1, Cornet 3 up to g1 and down to G, Horn 1 up to e-flat 1 and down to F, Horn 2 up to d-flat1 and down to F, Horn 3 up to d1 and down to F, Trombone 1 up to f, Trombone 2 up to f and down to GG, Trobone 3 up to d and down to GG, Baritone up to g and down to AA-flat, Basses up to F and down to CCC
Rhythms: Winds:
All level 2 throughout


Snare Drum level 2 with rolls and flams, Bass Drum and Cymbal level 1, Timpani level 2 with 2 five bar rolls
Instrumentation: Piccolo/Flute 1, Flute 2/3, E-flat Clarinet, Oboe 1/2, Clarinet 1, Clarinet 2, Clarinet 3, Alto Clarinet/Contrabass Clarinet, Bass Clarinet/Contrabass Clarinet, Alto Sax 1, Alto Sax 2, Tenor Sax, Bari Sax, Bassoon, Cornet1, Cornet 2, Cornet 3, Horn in F 1/2, Horn in F 3/4, Trombone 1, Trombone 2, Trombone 3, Baritone TC, Barintone BC, Basses, String Bass, Drums, Bells, Timpani
Percussion: Snare Drum, Bass Drum, Bells, Suspended Cymbal, Chimes, Timpani (2 drums)
Conductor Score: Full score;  26 lines
Length/Timing: 6 minutes (184 measures)
  • Numerous accidentals
  • All instruments have an extended upper and/or lower range
  • Uses Piccolo, Flute 3, E-flat Clarinet, Contrabass Clarinet, Oboe 2, Alto Clarinet, Cornet 3, Horn 3/4, Trombone 3, String Bass
  • Use of fermatas, slurs, staccatos, legatos, accents
  • 5 bar trill for upper woodwinds at m.133

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